This guide explains all the most popular gluten-free flours.  It is not all-inclusive, but is a pretty good start!  Please let me know if you have any questions or would like to see any other ingredients added to this list.

Tip: Many of the flours listed here can be made at home by grinding your own ingredients, which can be more cost-effective.

Disclosure: Some of the links below are affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you click through and make a purchase.  Thank you for your support!

The brands listed here should not be considered an endorsement of that brand unless specifically mentioned.  There are many brand options to choose from when purchasing.  The ones listed here provide an example of the product and should not be taken as a recommendation for a particular brand.  

Gluten-Free Flours

All-Purpose Flour

All-Purpose Gluten-Free Flour can be a great substitute for wheat-based flour.  They are typically a mixture of gluten-free flours and starches, but each brand is a bit different.  If you do not have success with one brand, try a different one.  I have found the taste to vary by brand as well, so shop around and experiment to find your favorite.  Many blends can be used 1:1 when replacing wheat-based flour.  They tend to be reliable and a great way to convert a wheat-based flour recipe to a gluten-free one.  By using a pre-packaged blend, it also allows you to use fewer ingredients when you bake.

The ingredients in All-Purpose blends also vary by brand.  Some blends use xanthan gum while others omit it.  If the blend includes xanthan gum, then you do not need to add xanthan gum to the recipe.  If the blend does not include xanthan gum, it may specify how much to use for various types of food.  You can use that as a guideline or just follow your recipe.  Often-times, All-Purpose Gluten-Free Flour will contain Brown Rice Flour and/or White Rice Flour as the primary ingredient.  Rice Flour has a higher glycemic index than something like Almond Flour.  If glycemic index is a concern, you may want to avoid all-purpose blends or be picky about the ones you choose.  For instance, this one from Bob’s Red Mill uses Chickpea Flour as the primary ingredient and will have a lower glycemic index than one that uses rice flour as the primary ingredient.

The nutritional information will vary greatly, depending on the brand chosen.  Here is an example:

Glycemic Index: varies by brand

Almond Flour is one of my favorite gluten-free flours.  It is generally easy to swap for regular flour and can produce fantastic results.  It does NOT add a distinctive nutty taste, which means you don’t have to like almonds to like almond flour baked goods.  You also receive all the health benefits of eating almonds.

Almond flour can be substituted 1:1 for wheat-based flour.  Baked goods with almond flour tend to be more tender, moister (due to the added fat content), and have a lower rise.  For that reason, mix almond flour with other flours or oats for best results.  King Arthur Flour recommends replacing 1/4 of the flour with almond flour.  In some recipes, all of the flour can be substituted.  For instance, in my Sugar-Free / Gluten-Free Oatmeal Raisin Cookies, almond is the only flour (however, it does contain oatmeal).  Almond flour is also a fantastic substitute for graham crackers in a graham cracker crust, like in my Sugar-Free / Gluten-Free Sex in a Pan.  The almond flour provides a bit of texture so that the graham crackers aren’t missed.

There are approximately 100 almonds per cup of almond flour.  Though delicious, it can also add to the caloric count of your treats.

Glycemic Index: Low


Amaranth Flour is an ancient grain that King Arthur Flour describes as “Earthy and peppery.”  It is a great addition to gluten-free foods when used in moderation.  In small amounts, Amaranth can add a whole host of nutrients and vitamins.  It is a good source of fiber, protein, and calcium, among others.  However, too much can make baked goods dense.

Amaranth can be substituted for 25%-50% of the flour in a recipe and can be substituted 1:1 for wheat-based flour.  Amaranth Flour has a strong nutty flavor, which lends itself to flavorful baking, such as these Chocolate Chip Cookies from the Gluten-Free Chef.  It also can add a bit of complexity to your baked goods, like these Sugar-Free / Gluten-Free Orange Zest Scones.

I have read varying opinions about the glycemic index of Amaranth Flour.  It is generally accepted that amaranth grain has a low GI, but the flour has a higher GI that can’t be agreed on.  As LiveStrong explains, grinding the Amaranth into a flour may raise the glycemic index as it is digested quicker than the full grain.  Depending on how it is used, Amaranth Flour could have a medium or high GI.  Check out LiveStrong or Gluten-Free Chef for more information.

Glycemic Index: It’s complicated


Buckwheat Flour is an excellent source of protein, fiber, and antioxidants.  It has a strong toasted taste.  To produce best results mix buckwheat with other flours, such as Almond Flour.

Despite its name, Buckwheat Flour is not wheat or even a grain.  Buckwheat is a seed and is, in fact, gluten-free by nature, however like many gluten-free flours, there may be cross-contamination during processing.  Be sure to look for the gluten-free label on all flours.

Buckwheat can be replaced for 25%-50% of the recipe flour. It does not rise when baked, making it best suited for baked goods with little rise, such as pancakes, cookies, or these crepes by King Arthur Flour.  Buckwheat can be substituted 1:1 for wheat-based flour.

Glycemic Index: Low



Cassava Flour is grain-free, nut-free, and gluten-free.  It closely resembles wheat’s taste and texture and bakes well.  Although this sounds like a dream flour, it is high in carbohydrates without many other nutrients.

Cassava flour should be used 1:1 for wheat-based flour.  It does not rise as well as wheat-based flour, making it a good substitution for items like these Paleo Tortillas from Nurture my gut or pastry for Gluten-Free Poptarts from Kyra Bussanich.  For cakes, bread, or other items that need a good rise, a blend of cassava flour and other gluten-free flours can be used.  For items that do not require rising, like cookies, cassava flour can replace 100% of the recipe flour.  It is best to pair it with other gluten-free flours that pack a nutritional punch in order to make baked goods more healthy.

The cassava tuber has naturally occurring cyanide which could be toxic if eaten raw.  However, cassava is boiled in the process of making cassava flour, which eliminates the cyanide, making cassava flour safe to eat (source).

Although the glycemic index of cassava is low, the GI of cassava flour can range from low to high depending on the processing method.

Glycemic Index: Varies

Chickpea Flour (Garbanzo Bean Flour) is packed with protein, iron, folate, and fiber, among others.  It adds a subtle sweet nutty taste to add richness to your baked goods.  Chickpea flour is a healthy option for all, but particularly good for people with food sensitivities given that it is gluten-free, grain-free and nut-free.

To replace wheat-based flour with chickpea flour, substitute 7/8 cup of chickpea flour for every 1 cup of flour.  Up to 25% of the recipe flour can be replaced with chickpea flour.  Additionally, the baking temperature may need to be decreased by 25 degrees F since chickpea flour has a tendency to brown quickly.

An added benefit to using chickpea flour in gluten-free baking is its natural tendency for binding.  In fact, chickpea flour can be used as a substitute for eggs.  1 egg equals 1/4 cup of chickpea flour mixed with 1/4 cup water.

From Gluten-Free Pizza Crust from Kitchen Stewardship to Chocolate Chip Cookies from Ambitious Kitchen, chickpea flour is versatile and can be used in all sorts of baked goods.

Glycemic Index: Low

Coconut Flour is one of the most popular gluten-free flours and provides many health benefits.  It has a low glycemic index and is high in fiber, protein, and healthy fats.  Coconut flour produces baked goods that are more dense with a courser texture.

Coconut flour is incredibly absorbent, which makes it more difficult to substitute for other flours.  To save yourself time, heartache, and money, I recommend using an established recipe instead of attempting to substitute coconut flour on your own.  If you decide to substitute coconut flour, use 1/4 to 1/3 cup of coconut flour for every 1 cup of wheat-based flour.  Also, increase the amount of liquid and the number of eggs in the recipe as well.  For every 1 cup of coconut flour, add 1 cup of liquid.  For every 1 cup of coconut flour, use 6 eggs in the recipe (do not add 6 eggs, have a total of 6 eggs).  For instance, if a recipe calls for 4 cups of wheat-based flour, 2 eggs, and 1 cup of milk, use 1 cup of coconut flour, 6 eggs, and 2 cups of milk.

Danielle Walker has some great Coconut Flour recipes in her cookbook series Against All Grain.  Her coconut flour pancakes are my favorite.  She also has a recipe for Banana Pancakes on her blog. As a side note – her cookbooks are amazing!!  They share delicious dairy free and grain free recipes.  The cookbook is incredibly well thought out with details such as cooking time, variations, and make-ahead tips.  This is my go-to cookbook!

For further reading, Dr. Axe has a very thorough guide for Coconut Flour and a great comparison of Coconut Flour to Almond Flour.

Glycemic Index: Low


Corn flour should not be confused with Corn Meal, Corn Starch, or Cornflour.  Corn Flour is finely ground Corn Meal, which naturally has a coarser texture.  Corn Flour and Corn Meal are derived from the corn kernel whereas Corn Starch, also known as Cornflour (no space), is derived from the endosperm of corn kernels.  A specific type of corn flour that is typically used for corn tortillas is also referenced as Masa Harina.

Corn Flour is typically used in products such as corn tortillas.  Corn Flour is not an overly popular replacement for wheat-based flour, in part due to its relatively poor nutritional value and concerns for using GMO foods.  However, it can be substituted 1:1 for wheat-base flour.  Depending on the recipe, 25%-100% of the recipe flour may be replaced with corn flour.

Glycemic Index: High


Flaxseed Flour / Meal is full of fiber and essential nutrients.  Flaxseed is known for its many health benefits, leading many people to add extra flaxseed to dishes.  Similarly adding some flaxseed flour boosts the nutritional value of your baked goods.

Flaxseed Flour may be substituted for wheat-based flour 1:1.  Up to 15% of the recipe flour can be replaced with flaxseed flour.  Flaxseed Flour can also be used to replace eggs or oil in recipes.  Read more about how to make these substitutions at Healthy Flax.

Flaxseed absorbs water at a high rate.  To add flaxseed to recipes, the amount of water may need to be increased as well, however this varies by recipe.  It is also a good idea to drink more water if consuming large quantities of Flaxseed as it may cause constipation otherwise.

Flaxseed flour can be found in recipes like this quick and easy Paleo / Low Carb Cinnamon Muffin in a Mug from WholesomeYum or Bread Rolls from Divaliscious Recipes.

Glycemic Index: Low


Hazelnut Flour provides a strong flavor while delivering added protein.  Like hazelnuts, hazelnut flour provides a strong nut flavor to recipes.  When used in moderation, this can add a rich flavor to your baked goods.  It works well in most products, including cakes and cookies.  As King Arthur Flour says “Mix it with chocolate for a flavor combination so good, it’s habit-forming (we warned you).”  You don’t have to look any further than Nutella to see that Hazelnut and Chocolate is a great combination.

Hazelnut flour is higher in calories and fat than other flours on this list but it has fewer carbs than most.  It also is less fine than other flours, which adds a nutty texture to baked goods.

Hazelnut flour is best when used for up to 30% of the flour in a recipe.  It can be used 1:1 for wheat-based flour.  As a grain-free flour, it can be a great addition to add nutrients to baked goods.  Try these chewy Hazelnut Coconut Cookies by Sweet & Savory that have no refined sugar, and are both gluten-free and vegan. Or try using hazelnut flour in my Sugar-Free / Gluten-Free Brownies in place of the All-purpose Gluten-Free flour.

Glycemic Index: Low


Millet Flour is an ancient grain with a mild, sweet taste. It is a good source of protein, fiber, essential minerals, and amino acids.  For more information on the many health benefits of Millet Flour, check out these 7 Amazing Benefits of Millet from Organic Facts.

Millet Flour is like corn flour in many ways, except millet flour has a higher nutritional value.  It tastes similar to corn flour and like corn flour, millet flour is gritty.  It is best to substitute 25%-50% of the recipe flour with millet flour.  More than that will result in baked goods with a grainy, sandy texture.  Millet Flour can be substituted 1:1 for other flours.

Millet flour is fairly versatile and can be used in many recipes.  It can be found in recipes ranging from this Gluten-Free Sandwich Bread from Faithfully Gluten Free to Blueberry Lemon Bundt Cake from Allergy Free Alaska.

Glycemic Index: High


Oat Flour is a whole grain rich in soluble fiber.  It has a mild taste that will not overwhelm other subtle flavors. Baked goods made with oat flour tend to be moister than their wheat flour alternatives.

Replace recipe flour with oat flour 1:1.  Oat flour can deliver light and fluffy baked goods in smaller quantities, such as these Lemon Bliss Balls from Feasting on Fruit that use 50% oat flour.  In larger quantities, it can lead to denser baked goods, like this Oat Flour Banana Bread from Confessions of a Baking Queen that uses 100% oat flour.  When used in large quantities, leavening ingredients or yeast may need to be increased.

Oats are gluten-free by nature, but they are generally harvested and processed in the same vicinity as wheat, leading to cross-contamination.  To completely avoid gluten, be sure to look for the Gluten Free label on your oats or oat flour.

Oat Flour can be cheaper than other gluten-free flour alternatives, particularly if you grind your own.  To make your own oat flour, finely grind oats in a food processor.  1 1/4 cups of oats will yield 1 cup of oat flour.

Glycemic Index: Medium

Potato Flour can be a great addition to gluten-free baked goods.  It acts as a binder, producing items that are tender, light, and fluffy.  Also, potato flour is very absorbent, which helps baked goods retain moisture and stay fresh longer.

Although potato flour can be found in many baked goods, like these Gluten-Free Peanut Butter Cookies, it is best suited for springy baked goods, like this Gluten-Free Potato bread from Ideas in Food.

Potato flour and potato starch are not interchangeable.  Potato starch is only the starch from potatoes and does not have a potato taste.  Potato flour is ground up whole potatoes, which includes the fiber, protein, and flavor of potatoes.  Potato starch is also known as Potato Starch Flour.  This can make it especially confusing when looking for Potato Flour!  When in doubt, check the ingredients to confirm if it is just the starch or the whole potato.

Potato flour should be substituted 1:1 for other flours.  Only a small amount is needed, about 10%-20%.  Too much potato flour can make baked goods gummy.  For that reason, potato flour should be mixed with other gluten-free flours.

Glycemic Index: High

Quinoa Flour is one of the most nutritious gluten-free flours.  Quinoa is often referred to as a superfood due to its high level of protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.  By adding quinoa flour to recipes, you increase the nutritional value of your baked goods.  Although referred to as an ancient grain, quinoa is actually a seed and not grain.

Toasting quinoa flour, as laid out by Whole Lifestyle Nutrition, makes the flour finer and changes the flavor to be sweet instead of nutty and earthy.  Taking the time to toast quinoa flour can improve the quality of baked goods.

Quinoa flour provides a tender crumb to baked goods, but too much will leave baked goods dry and crumbly.  Substituting 25% of the recipe flour with Quinoa Flour tends to provide the best results, though 100% of the flour may be replaced with Quinoa Flour in some cases.  Quinoa flour should be substituted 1:1 for wheat-based flour.

Quinoa can make a great addition to baked goods of all types.  For example, it can be used to make a savory snack like Garlic Rosemary Quinoa Crackers from Simply Quinoa or in sweet recipes like Berry Cobbler from Super Healthy Kids.

Glycemic Index: Low

Rice Flour, Brown is incredibly versatile and is often found in gluten-free flour blends.  Bown rice flour has a heartier taste and texture than white rice flour, but it is more nutritious.  As Sabrina Rocca explains, unlike white rice flour, brown rice flour is a whole grain.  Due to its low processing, brown rice flour is more nutritious with more vitamins and minerals.

Brown Rice Flour should be substituted 7/8 cup for every 1 cup of wheat-based flour.  The liquid in the recipe may also need to be increased as rice flour is more absorbent than wheat-based flour. Some brands of brown rice flour leave baked goods with a grainy texture.  Look for one that is very fine and graininess should not be an issue.  To improve the texture, refrigerate dough for 30 minutes prior to baking.

Brown rice flour works well in many recipes.  It can be found as part of a blend in my classic Red Velvet Cake or it can be used as 100% of the flour in these Gluten-Free Pancakes from Mashup Mom.

Rice flour is one of the cheapest flours available for gluten-free baking, which makes it highly desirable.  It is not the most nutritious flour on this list, but it can combine easily with other flours for a well-rounded flour blend.

Glycemic Index: Low

Rice Flour, Sweet is a popular flour in gluten-free flour mixes.  Sweet rice flour is made from sticky rice, also known as glutinous rice. Despite its name, glutinous rice does not contain gluten.  And it isn’t particularly sweet.  Due to its high starch content, sweet rice flour has a higher tendency for binding than other rice flours.  It also lends itself to moister baked goods.

Sweet rice flour cannot be substituted for other rice flours due to its higher starch content.  When replacing recipe flour, sweet rice flour can compromise up to 40% of the total flour.  Like many gluten-free flours, sweet rice flour works best when combined with other gluten-free flours.

Sweet rice flour is a standard ingredient in Mochi Doughnuts.  and Pretzel Bites from Tasty Yummies.

Glycemic Index: High



Rice Flour, White has a mild flavor that works well in most recipes.  White rice flour does not have as many health benefits as brown rice flour and has a much higher glycemic index.  For those reasons, brown rice flour is generally preferable.  However, baked goods made with white rice flour will be more tender and lighter than those made with brown rice flour.

White rice flour and brown rice flour can usually be substituted for each other.  The difference between white rice flour and brown rice flour is like the difference between white flour and wheat flour.  The results will be close but may vary slightly.

When substituting, use 3/4 cup of white rice flour for every 1 cup of wheat-based flour.  The liquid in the recipe may also need to be increased as rice flour is more absorbent than wheat-based flour.  It can be used for 100% of the recipe flour, though it is more typical to use 30%-50% white rice flour.

Some rice flour is ground fine while others are coarse.  A course flour can impact the how well the dough absorbs water, which can leave baked goods flat (source).  I recommend Bob’s Red Mill White Rice Flour, which is finer than some other brands.

White rice flour is very versatile and is one of the cheapest gluten-free flour options.  It can be used to make anything from Gluten-Free Pie Crust from Serena Bakes to White Chocolate Cherry Cookies from La Phemme Phoodie.

Glycemic Index: High

Sorghum Flour is a whole grain with a mild, sweet flavor.  Sorghum flour leads to a light, soft texture in baked goods.  It does not add a gritty texture like some other gluten-free flours.  It is high in protein, iron, fiber, and antioxidants.

Sorghum flour should be used 1:1 for wheat-based flour.  15%-20% of the recipe flour can be replaced with sorghum flour.  Using 100% sorghum flour is not recommended because baked goods will have a low rise.  To improve the moisture content and texture, add a small amount of oil or fat and extra eggs.  The amount to add will vary by recipe.  Sorghum flour does not include a binder and will need to be mixed with other ingredients, such as xanthan gum, to have the proper cohesion and stretch in baked goods.

Sorghum flour works well in many recipes.  It can be used for anything from muffins to cakes to pizza crust.  You can find it in Flatbread from Moksha Food and Poppyseed Cake from This Vivacious Life.

Glycemic Index: Low


Soy Flour can add to the nutritional value of baked goods, adding fiber, calcium, iron, and a huge protein boost.  It is low in carbs compared to other flours on this list and can be used to reduce the overall carbs in baked goods.  Soy flour has a mild beany flavor, that can easily go unnoticed when mixed with other flours.

Substitute soy flour for wheat-based flour 1:1.  Up to 30% of the recipe flour can be replaced with soy flour.  Soy flour does not rise well on its own and should be combined with other flours for best results.  The baking temperature should be reduced by 25 degrees F since soy flour tends to brown quickly.  Soy flour is a binder and can be used as a replacement for eggs.  For a substitute for eggs, use 1 tablespoon of soy flour and 1 teaspoon of water for each egg.

Soy flour is very absorbent, which results in baked goods that are moister and stay fresher longer.  Baked goods made with soy flour tend to be lighter with a higher rise, lending itself to be used in a variety of gluten-free foods like Soy Cake or Low Carb Flat Bread, both from Genius Kitchen.

Glycemic Index: Low


Teff Flour is an ancient grain and is an excellent source of fiber, calcium, and manganese.  Although called an ancient grain, it is actually a seed and is grain-free.  Teff flour is light and has a distinctive taste, adding an earthy flavor to your baked goods.  There are different types of Teff, referred to by their color.  Dark teff has a heartier flavor, similar to molasses, while white teff is milder.

Unlike most other flours on this list, it is very difficult to grind teff flour at home due to the very small size of the grain (about the size of a poppy seed).

To substitute teff flour for wheat-based flour, substitute teff flour 1:1.  Up to 25% of the recipe flour can be replaced with teff flour.  Too much will leave baked goods gritty and crumbly.

Teff is a staple in Ethiopia, where they commonly use teff to make injera, which is a spongy sourdough flatbread.  Teff flour is versatile enough to be used in a variety of baked goods, including breads, pancakes, and these Chocolate Chip Cookies from Artsy Foodie.

Glycemic Index: Low

GF Flour Nutritional Data

Full Nutritional Data:     Open in Excel      Open as PDF



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